Report to the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health from the Knowledge Network on Urban Settings (the KNUS report). WHO Kobe Centre, Kobe, Japan.
: This report summarizes the social determinants of health in urban settings and provides guidance and examples of interventions that have been effective in achieving health equity. It is divided into 7 sections. Section 1 provides an introduction, and Section 2 discusses urbanization and the urban setting as health determinants. Section 3 describes the urban health situation, including disease burden, infectious diseases, injuries, violence, mental health, substance abuse, noncommunicable disease and nutritional disorders. Section 4 presents key issues and challenges in achieving equity, such as environmental health threats, occupational hazards, urban health impacts of global resource depletion and environmental change, health care systems and emergency services, gender and women's issues, and other vulnerable groups. Section 5 presents a broad spectrum of interventions, and Section 6 provides approaches and policies to make interventions happen. Section 7 provides conclusions and recommendations.